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By Tamar Chana Reich

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Hira (even though Kr~IJa's royal status is contested, and even though Yudhisthira is certainly the more paradigmatic king in this exchange), To have nominatives (raja sa) in one pada and instrumentals (dhrcara${rer;a 12Lord 1960. As I explain in my Introduction, the stronger claim, that if a text is formulaic then it is orally composed, is problematic. 44 dhfmatii) in the second may feel smoother than to alternate between instrumentals and nominative as the reconstructed text does (rajna sa dhrrari4p-eT)a dhlmatii).

For example: often the reason for the omission is evident, as with the common scribal error of skipping to the next occurrence of a repeated opening formula. In such cases the similarity has caused the scribe's eye to skip down a portion of the text. 16The tenns "insertions" or "interpolations" are also used. I prefer "expansion," the most neutral of the three terms. 46 When a leaf or more of the manuscript is lost, the text is likely to be strangely cut off and to resume at a totally arbitrary point, and if we have the manuscript from which it was copied, it is obvious that a whole page has been skipped.

I can, however, do the second best thing to it. I can point to a concrete example that proves that universal insertion is very very likely. Consider the following. All cases in which only some of the manuscripts contain a passage can theoretically be placed along a continuum. Obviously, the fewer the manuscripts (or branches of manuscripts) in which the problem passage appears the more certain can we be that expansion has occurred. The greater the number of attestations, on the other hand, the less positive can we be that it is an expansion and not an omission.

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