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By Mario Bunge

In this advent we will kingdom the company of either descriptive and normative epistemology, and shall find them within the map oflearning. This needs to be performed simply because epistemology has been reported useless, and method nonexisting; and since, whilst stated in any respect, they can be lost. 1. DESCRIPTIVE EPISTEMOLOGY the subsequent difficulties are general of classical epistemology: (i) What will we recognize? (ii) How can we comprehend? (iii) What, if whatever, does the topic give a contribution to his wisdom? (iv) what's fact? (v) How will we realize fact? (vi) what's possible wisdom instead of definite wisdom? (vii) Is there a priori wisdom, and if this is the case of what? (viii) How are wisdom and motion comparable? (ix) How are wisdom and language comparable? (x) what's the prestige of techniques and propositions? In a few guise or different all of those difficulties are nonetheless with us. to make sure, if construed as a requirement for a list of data the 1st challenge isn't really a philosophical one to any extent further than the query 'What is there?'. however it is a real philosophical challenge if construed hence: 'What forms of item are knowable-and which of them are not?' despite the fact that, it really is uncertain that philosophy can supply an accurate solution to this challenge with no assistance from technology and know-how. for instance, basically those disciplines can let us know no matter if guy can comprehend not just phenomena (appearances) but additionally noumena (things in themselves or self-existing objects).

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What can get known, interests epistemology and the history of science, technology, and the humanities. And the third part, namely how (by what means, mechanisms, or methods) we may get to know, is addressed by all the cognitive sciences, particularly methodology. There are three fruitful approaches to the study of cognition: the neurobiological, the psychological, and the philosophical ones. All three are concerned, each in its own way, with the same problematics: internal representation, imagery, conception, conjecturing, systematization, inference, problem solving, criticism, and their kin.

Thus we can form the general concept of a tree perhaps because we possess plastic neural systems the specific function or activity of which is roughly the same whether they are activated by seeing or remembering a maple tree, a fir tree, or a birch tree: such psychons are generalists rather than specialists (Bunge, I 980a). An alternative account of concept formation is this. Every time an animal perceives a tree, several million neurons are excited, perhaps a different set every time. But there may be a thousand neurons common to all those different excitations.

Our second assumption is that some animals do have psychons. ) Our third, that all the psychons of an animal are coupled to one another forming a supersystem. Our fourth, that every animal endowed with psychons is capable of acquiring new biofunctions in the course of its life. (Apparently in man the processes of dendritic sprouting and formation of new synaptic connections stop only at the onset of senility. e. one that is constant or varies regularly rather than at random. A new connectivity may be formed by chance for the first time.

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