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16850. J. , 2006. Fructose malabsorption and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: guidelines for effective dietary management. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 106: 1631–1639. J. and Ustunol, Z. 2000. dobacterium spp. in skim-milk containing oligosaccharides and inulin. Journal of Food Science, Vol. 65 No. 5, pp. 884–7. C. M. 1994. Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to the antibacterial activity of manuka honey. Journal Royal Society of Medicine. Vol. 87, pp. 9–12. , Ulusoy, E. , 2010.

A Comprehensive Survey. London: Heinemann, pp. 608. , 1957. D-glucose-water phase diagram. Journal of Physical Chemistry. 61: 616–619. 1). When healthy, there is a balance between remineralisation and demineralisation of dental hard tissues (Equation 1). Hydroxyapatite: Ca5 ðPO4 Þ3 ðOHÞ2 ðsÞ$5Ca2þ ðaqÞþ3PO4 3À ðaqÞþ2OHÀ ðaqÞ ð1Þ Caries is a process in which this balance is disturbed: acids produced by bacteria on the tooth surface shift the equilibrium towards demineralisation. If the acidic challenges are too strong, too long or too frequent, the softening of the enamel surface allows the microbes to invade deeper into the underlying tooth tissues and cause tooth decay.

The salivary pH is normally close to neutral. Saliva resists pH changes but there are individual differences in the buffer capacity. Good buffer capacity is related to high salivary flow rate and favours remineralisation. In addition, saliva coats the enamel with a protein layer called pellicle, which protects the enamel against demineralisation. g. acids from beverages or produced by oral microbes. Finally, saliva contains several innate defence factors, which can – at least in vitro – inhibit the acid production as well as the attachment of cariogenic bacteria onto dental surfaces.

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